Ninety percent of brick production in Nepal takes place in the Kathmandu Valley. Brick production from natural draft, fixed chimney kilns generates black carbon and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). More efficient technologies such as forced draft, zigzag chimneys can reduce pollutants.

The brick industry provides jobs for thousands of unskilled workers. Migrant and seasonal labourers who live on the kilns during the season dominate this sector. Working conditions are often unhealthy and unsafe but in a country of limited opportunities, choices are few.


Following the devastating earthquakel in April 2015, concern is being expressed that brick kiln entrepreneurs will take shortcuts in terms of environmental and workers’ safety when rebuilding the kilns.

A worker carries fired bricks out of the kiln
View of the brick kiln factory
A man carries unfired bricks into the kiln as other workers on a break look on
A man tosses bricks to his co worker for stacking
Unfired bricks are stacked up ready for firing
A worker looks on while in the background a woman sets down her load of unfired bricks
Broken unfired bricks are loaded into baskets
Workers carry fired bricks out of the kiln
A female worker is relived of her load of fired bricks
Fired bricks are stacked in the sun